Does Caffeine Affect Pregnancy? What You Need to Know

Does Caffeine Affect Pregnancy? What You Need to Know

Congratulations on your pregnancy! As you step into this exciting journey, paying attention to what you consume is crucial. One such item to consider is caffeine. Known as the world’s most commonly consumed psychoactive substance, caffeine can significantly affect expectant mothers. This article delves into caffeine’s role in pregnancy, the risks tied to small amounts and excessive consumption during this period, and alternative options for those aiming to reduce their intake. We will also touch on studies regarding caffeine intake and birth size, and offer healthy substitutes for your preferred caffeinated drinks and snacks to aid you in making informed decisions throughout your pregnancy.

Researchers suggest that women who are pregnant or trying to conceive should think about avoiding caffeine.

“No safe level of caffeine consumption for pregnant women and would-be mothers”

-British Medical Journal

Facts About Caffeine and Pregnancy

During pregnancy, caffeine, a routine part in many daily products and a part of many people’s lives, can cross the placenta and affect the developing fetus. It might elevate the risk of miscarriage, affect fetal growth, and potentially cause other adverse effects. Notably, no known safe levels of caffeine intake exist for pregnant women. Individual sensitivity to caffeine varies, leading some expectant mothers to choose to avoid it completely.

Current evidence does not support health advice that assumes ‘moderate’ caffeine consumption during pregnancy is safe.

Does Caffeine Affect Pregnancy?

Caffeine can cross the placenta and affect the developing fetus. Studies associate high levels of caffeine consumption during pregnancy with potential adverse outcomes. Hence, understanding the potential risks and limitations of caffeine intake during pregnancy is crucial for expectant mothers, especially considering its potential effects on child health and neurodevelopment.

Common Sources of Caffeine

Typical caffeine sources include coffee, tea, energy drinks, even some sports drinks, soda, chocolate, and some over-the-counter medications. The caffeine content varies among different beverages and foods, so it’s essential for pregnant women to be aware of their caffeine intake from these sources, including over-the-counter medications. Recognizing common sources can assist in making informed decisions for both your health and your baby’s well-being.

Caffeine Impact in Pregnancy

Consuming caffeine during pregnancy can potentially affect the developing fetus. Hence, striking a balance between enjoying caffeinated beverages and ensuring a healthy pregnancy is vital. Excessive caffeine intake during pregnancy can lead to health issues for both you and your baby, like an increased risk of complications such as miscarriage, stillbirth, and low birth weight. Caffeine can also exacerbate pregnancy symptoms like insomnia, morning sickness, and frequent bathroom trips. Being cautious and mindful of your caffeine consumption during pregnancy to evade potential side effects, including irritability, is crucial.

Is there a Safe Level of Caffeine During Pregnancy?

The safety of caffeine consumption during pregnancy is a topic of concern. To minimize potential risks, it is suggested to limit intake to a moderate caffeine consumption level of less than 200 milligrams per day. The recommended safe level varies, but national guidelines recommend this moderate caffeine consumption for anyone pregnant or attempting to become pregnant. However, the recommendations are anywhere between 200mg a day to no caffeine at all. After reading into this for some time I am confident in sharing that it is important to have no caffeine at all during pregnancy.

Let’s look further into this recommendation.

Anyone planning to have a baby needs to know that consuming up to 100 mg of caffeine during pregnancy can raise the risk of stillbirth and other pregnancy complications, so it’s important to cut down as much as you can; the national guidelines should be the limit, not the goal, and the more you can cut down beyond that the better.

How does caffeine affect a developing baby in the womb?

Caffeine can cross the placenta and affect the developing baby. High intake links to an increased risk of miscarriage, preterm birth, low birth weight, and developmental delays. Limiting or eliminating it from your diet altogether is advisable.

How Caffeine Crosses the Placenta

It is important for pregnant women to understand how metabolism of caffeine crosses the placenta. Caffeine easily passes through the placenta and reaches the fetus, but the fetus is unable to metabolize caffeine as efficiently as adults do. This means that high levels of caffeine can lead to increased fetal exposure. To reduce potential risks to the fetus, it is recommended for pregnant women to limit their caffeine intake.

“Researchers analyzed the brain scans of more then 9,000 nine and ten-year-olds and found a change in important brain pathways in those whose mothers retrospectively reported consuming caffeine while pregnant.“

University of Rochester Medical Study

Caffeine passes the placental barrier freely; the fetus does not express the main enzymes that inactivate it and caffeine metabolites have been found to accumulate in the fetal brain.

National Library of Medicine

Researchers believe caffeine could potentially disrupt fetal stress hormones, putting infants at risk for rapid weight gain after birth and for later life obesity, heart disease and diabetes.

The Effects of Caffeine on Your Pregnant Body

Caffeine, a stimulant affecting the central nervous system, can have varying effects on pregnant women. While low consumption is generally considered safe, some studies point to the potential link between its intake and adverse outcomes. Considering this, it’s important to balance your use with the health of your pregnancy.

The researchers noted that caffeine is believed to cause blood vessels in the uterus and placenta to constrict, which could reduce the blood supply to the fetus and inhibit growth.

“A mug of coffee each day roughly doubles the risk of having

– NHS England

Statement: Caffeine causes miscarriages

The ongoing debate surrounding the link between caffeine and miscarriages continues. Although some studies suggest a potential association, further research is necessary to draw definitive conclusions. It is crucial to consider other contributing factors that may lead to miscarriages. As a precautionary measure, pregnant women may choose to limit intake. While more research is needed, it is wise to err on the side of caution when it comes to using during pregnancy.

A mug of coffee (approx 40-80mg of caffeine) roughly doubles the risk of having a stillbirth.

Caffeine and Your Fertility

So let’s cover the potential effect on fertility in some individuals. Several studies suggest that there may be an association with conception. If you’re trying to conceive, it may be beneficial to reduce your caffeine intake. It is always a good idea to discuss this possibility and its impact on fertility with someone who is a professional on fertility topics. Making lifestyle changes can be hugely supportive, such as moderating caffeine consumption and may support your fertility journey. A European multicentre study found that women consuming 500 mg/d or greater of caffeine had a significant risk of subfecundity in their first pregnancy (odds ratio 1.45, 95% CI 1.03 to 2.04). This study suggests that high levels of caffeine might delay conception.

Statement: Caffeine causes infertility

While consumption has been a topic of concern during pregnancy, it is important to note that there is no direct link between caffeine and infertility. Various factors such as age, overall health, and medical conditions play a significant role in fertility. However, it could be beneficial for individuals trying to conceive. It is always advisable to seek a comprehensive evaluation from a healthcare provider when addressing infertility concerns, and lifestyle factors like caffeine consumption may be just a part of fertility treatment plans.

Does Caffeine Affect Pregnancy- Studies

Some studies indicate potential links between high caffeine consumption and increased risk of adverse outcomes. As there is such a varied debate on this topic it would stand to reason that this is a topic that could do with more research. But as it stands a lot of research is pretty conclusive and points to caffeine having a lot more potential ill effects during pregnancy than benefits. Conclusive advice has been varied but when links to adverse outcomes have been quite clear- that it does affect both the baby and the mother’s pregnancy it’s advisable to just take the better advice on the topic. Just limit your intake of caffeine to as close to zero as you can. But of course, seek further guidance on this topic by seeking individual advice from a professional healthcare advisor.

Moderate Caffeine Intake and Birth Size

Some studies have suggested a potential link between caffeine consumption during pregnancy and a slight decrease in birth size. However, the overall health implications of this finding are still under investigation. To err on the side of caution, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists recommends limiting during pregnancy. It’s important to strike a balance of moderation while maintaining a healthy diet and lifestyle. Individuals are advised to discuss their specific circumstances with a healthcare professional for personalized guidance.

Risks Associated with Caffeine Consumption in Pregnancy

High levels during pregnancy have been linked to an increased risk of miscarriage, (pregnancy loss before 20 weeks). Fetal growth and development have also been linked as well. Some associations have suggested preterm birth, low birth weight, and other adverse outcomes. It is crucial to consider these risks and make informed choices.

Caffeine During Breastfeeding

Intake during pregnancy and breastfeeding is a topic of debate. While moderate consumption is considered safe during pregnancy, it’s also associated with poor outcomes such as low birth weight, miscarriage, and preterm labor. Studies have suggested that moderate intake during breastfeeding does not harm the baby. Fussiness, jitteriness and poor sleep patterns have been reported in the infants of mothers with very high caffeine intakes equivalent to about 10 or more cups of coffee daily. 

Studies in mothers taking 5 cups of coffee daily found no stimulation in breastfed infants 3 weeks of age and older. A maternal intake limit of 300 to 500 mg daily might be a safe level of intake for most mothers, although European authorities set a likely safe level at 200 mg.

This really needs more research to determine the breast milk-caffeine transition and hopefully lead people to informed decisions and offer a lower risk.

How much caffeine is in your favorite drinks & snacks?

The caffeine content in different beverages and snacks can vary. Coffee and energy drinks generally contain higher levels compared to tea and soda. It’s important to be aware of the caffeine content and consume it in moderation to minimize potential risks. Reading labels and referring to reliable sources can help make informed decisions.

You can head over to Tommys Organisation to calculate your caffeine intake here.

Alternatives to Caffeine During Pregnancy

Consider alternatives to caffeinated drinks and snacks. Herbal teas like chamomile or peppermint can be refreshing options. Opting for decaffeinated versions of coffee or tea, such as green tea, can help reduce caffeine intake. Furthermore, water, infused water, Isomum, or fruit juices can provide hydration. And when it comes to snacks, exploring healthy options like fruits, nuts, or yogurt can offer a natural boost of energy.

Healthy Substitutes for Your Favourite Caffeinated Drinks and Snacks

When looking for alternatives to your favorite caffeinated drinks and snacks during pregnancy, there are plenty of healthier options to consider. Instead of reaching for a cup of coffee, try sipping on herbal tea or decaf coffee for a warm and comforting beverage. To swap out energy drinks, opt for natural fruit smoothies or infused water for a refreshing boost of energy that’s free from caffeine. If you’re a tea lover, choose decaf or herbal tea instead of regular tea to satisfy your cravings. And when it comes to soda, trade it in for sparkling water or homemade fruit-infused water for a fizzy and flavorful alternative. Lastly, when snacking, opt for nutritious options like fresh fruit, yogurt, or nuts instead. These small changes can make a big difference in your overall health during pregnancy.

Is it safe to consume decaffeinated beverages while pregnant?

Decaffeinated beverages are generally considered safe during pregnancy. It’s important to note that some decaf drinks may still contain trace amounts of caffeine, so it’s always a good idea to check the label. Decaf coffee and tea can be good alternatives for those who still want the taste without the caffeine.


While moderate consumption is argued to be safe, this is a topic that has received a huge amount of opposing guidance. Becoming aware of the importance of potential risks associated with caffeine consumption, including the effects on birth size, stillbirths, and miscarriage. If you are looking for alternatives, there are plenty of healthy substitutes available that can still provide a boost of energy without the potential risks. Remember, taking care of your health and well-being during pregnancy is crucial, so make informed choices and prioritize what is the best choice for you and your baby.